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The authors are developing enhanced onboard and at-wing diagnostic technologies applicable to both legacy and new avionics. The paper identifies onboard information sources and automated reasoning techniques that build upon existing built-in-test (BIT) results to improve fault isolation accuracy. Modular software and data elements that combine BIT with contextual information, component usage models, and novel reasoning techniques are described. In addition, the authors identify candidate avionics component applications to implement prognostics (prediction of impending problem) using forecasting techniques. A demonstration of diagnostic/prognostic prototype reasoners and information continuity using an open architecture framework within the streamlined maintenance concept is offered.