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A novel digitally controlled oscillator (DCO) architecture for multigigahertz wireless RF applications, such as short-range wireless connectivity or cellular phones, is proposed and demonstrated. It deliberately avoids any use of an analog tuning voltage control line. Fine frequency resolution is achieved through high-speed dithering, yet the resulting spurious tones are very low. This enables to employ fully digital frequency synthesizers in the most advanced deep-submicrometer digital CMOS processes, which allow almost no analog extensions. It promotes cost-effective integration with the digital back-end onto a single silicon die. The demonstrator test chip has been fabricated in a digital 0.13 μm CMOS process together with a digital signal processor to investigate noise coupling. The 2.4 GHz DCO core consumes 2.3 mA from a 1.5 V supply and has a very large tuning range of 500 MHz. The phase noise is -112 dBc/Hz at 500 kHz offset. The presented ideas have been incorporated in a commercial Bluetooth transceiver.
Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:51 , Issue: 11 )
Date of Publication: Nov. 2003