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Software engineering is a human task, and as such we must study what software engineers do and think. Understanding the normative practice of software engineering is the first step toward developing realistic solutions to better facilitate the engineering process. We conducted three studies using several data-gathering approaches to elucidate the patterns by which software engineers (SEs) use and update documentation. Our objective is to more accurately comprehend and model documentation use, usefulness, and maintenance, thus enabling better decision making and tool design by developers and project managers. Our results confirm the widely held belief that SEs typically do not update documentation as timely or completely as software process personnel and managers advocate. However, the results also reveal that out-of-date software documentation remains useful in many circumstances.