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A nonvolatile 16-kb one-transistor one-magnetic-tunnel-junction (1T1MTJ) magnetoresistance random access memory with 0.24-μm design rules was developed by using a self-reference sensing scheme for reliable sensing margin. This self-reference sensing scheme was achieved by first storing a voltage of the magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ), and then after a time interval storing a reference voltage of the same MTJ (self-reference). The effects of variation in tunneling oxide thickness can be eliminated by this self-reference sensing scheme. As a result, reliable sensing of MRAM devices with MTJ resistance of 2.5-11 kΩ was achieved.