Cart (Loading....) | Create Account
Close category search window

Refractivity estimation using multiple elevation angles

Sign In

Cookies must be enabled to login.After enabling cookies , please use refresh or reload or ctrl+f5 on the browser for the login options.

Formats Non-Member Member
$31 $13
Learn how you can qualify for the best price for this item!
Become an IEEE Member or Subscribe to
IEEE Xplore for exclusive pricing!
close button

puzzle piece

IEEE membership options for an individual and IEEE Xplore subscriptions for an organization offer the most affordable access to essential journal articles, conference papers, standards, eBooks, and eLearning courses.

Learn more about:

IEEE membership

IEEE Xplore subscriptions

4 Author(s)
Gerstoft, P. ; Marine Phys. Lab., Univ. of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA ; Rogers, L.T. ; Hodgkiss, W.S. ; Wagner, L.J.

Estimation of the atmospheric refractivity is important for the prediction of radar performance. Surface or elevated trapping layers formed by the outflow of relatively dry and warm air over a cooler body of water often result in the refractive structure-supporting-convergence-zone-like behavior and multimodal effects. The propagation under such conditions can be very sensitive to even small changes in the vertical and horizontal structure of refractivity. Obtaining in situ measurements of sufficient fidelity to estimate where intensifications in the electromagnetic field will occur is difficult. The authors previously have demonstrated the ability to infer refractivity parameters from grazing-incidence radar sea-clutter data. The radar system was the 2.8-GHz space range radar that overlooks the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of Wallops Island, VA. The forward modeling consisted of the mapping of an 11-parameter environmental model via an electromagnetic propagation model into the space of the radar clutter observations. A genetic algorithm was employed to optimize the objective function. Ground truth data were atmospheric soundings obtained by a helicopter flying a saw-tooth pattern. The overall result was that the ability to estimate the propagation within the duct itself was comparable to that of in situ measurements. However, the ability to characterize the region above the duct was quite poor. Modern three-dimensional radars, however, have relatively narrow beams. Using these narrow beams at multiple elevations might resolve the ambiguity leading to the poor characterization in the region above the duct. Using radar data from the SPANDAR radar, it is demonstrated that such an approach is feasible and that more-robust estimates can be obtained by using two elevation angles and/or by constraining the solution to contain realistic refractivity profiles.

Published in:

Oceanic Engineering, IEEE Journal of  (Volume:28 ,  Issue: 3 )

Date of Publication:

July 2003

Need Help?

IEEE Advancing Technology for Humanity About IEEE Xplore | Contact | Help | Terms of Use | Nondiscrimination Policy | Site Map | Privacy & Opting Out of Cookies

A not-for-profit organization, IEEE is the world's largest professional association for the advancement of technology.
© Copyright 2014 IEEE - All rights reserved. Use of this web site signifies your agreement to the terms and conditions.