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In recent years it has been shown that PET is capable of obtaining in vivo metabolic images of small animals. These serve as models to study the development and progress of diseases within humans. Imaging small animals requires not only image resolution better than 2 mm, but also high sensitivity in order to image ligands with low specific activity or radiochemical yields. Toward achieving these goals, we have developed a discrete 2 × 2 × 10 mm3 GSO Anger-logic detector for use in a high resolution, high sensitivity, and high count-rate animal PET scanner. This detector uses relatively large 19 mm diameter photomultiplier tubes (PMT), but nevertheless achieves good spatial and energy resolution. The scanner (A-PET) has a port diameter of 21 cm, transverse field-of-view of 12.8 cm, axial length of 11.6 cm, and operates in 3-D volume imaging mode. The absolute coincidence sensitivity is 1.3% for a point source. Due to the use of large PMTs in an Anger design, the encoding ratio (number of crystals/PMT) is high, which reduces the complexity and leads to a cost-effective scanner. Simulation results show that this scanner can achieve high NEC rates for small cylindrical phantoms due to its high sensitivity and low dead-time. Initial measurements show that our design goals for spatial resolution and sensitivity were realized in the prototype scanner.