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Packaging is a core technology for the advancement of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). We discuss MEMS packaging challenges in the context of functional interfaces, reliability, modeling and integration. These challenges are application-dependent; therefore, two case studies on accelerometers and BioMEMS are presented for an in-depth illustration. Presently, most NEMS are in the exploratory stage and hence a unique path to identify the relevant packaging issues for these devices has not been determined. We do, however, expect the self-assembly of nano-devices to play a key role in NEMS packaging. We demonstrate this point in two case studies, one on a silicon nanowire biosensor, and the other on self-assembly in molecular biology. MEMS/NEMS have the potential to have a tremendous impact on various sectors such as automotive, aerospace, heavy duty applications, and health care. Packaging engineers have an opportunity to make this impact a reality by developing low-cost, high-performance and high-reliability packaging solutions.