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The performance of three optoelectronic structures incorporating substrate-embedded InP-based inverted metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors and/or volume holographic gratings are analyzed and compared at the primary optical communication wavelengths. These structures, in conjunction with optical-quality polymer layers, can be easily integrated into silicon microelectronic substrates for the purpose of implementing potentially low-cost high-data-rate chip-level or substrate-level optical interconnects. The structures are as follows: a) an evanescent-coupling architecture with a substrate-embedded photodetector, b) a volume-holographic-grating coupler architecture with a substrate-embedded photodetector, and c) a volume-holographic-grating coupler architecture with a flip-chip-bonded photodetector. It is found that the primary characteristic of the evanescent coupling architectures is the efficient performance for both TE and TM polarizations with the disadvantage of exponentially decreasing efficiency with increasing separation between the waveguide film layer and the photodetector layer. On the other hand, the primary characteristic of the volume holographic grating architectures is the possibility of wavelength and polarization selectivity and their independence on the separation between the photodetector layer and the waveguide. Comparison of the analysis with experimental results is also included in the case of the evanescent coupling into a substrate-embedded photodetector.