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Double Rayleigh scattering noise in lumped and distributed Raman amplifiers

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4 Author(s)

An improved analytical expression of the multiple path interference (MPI) induced by double Rayleigh scattered signal in fiber Raman amplifiers (FRAs), valid both for lumped and distributed FRAs, is derived with a small signal model. The expression is validated both by comparison with an exact solution and by MPI measurements on four different lumped and distributed Raman amplifiers.

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Lightwave Technology, Journal of  (Volume:21 ,  Issue: 10 )