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Performance limitation due to statistical Raman crosstalk in a WDM system with multiple-wavelength bidirectionally pumped Raman amplification

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2 Author(s)
Xiang Zhou ; AT&T Labs.-Res., Middletown, NJ, USA ; Birk, M.

A general theoretical model of statistical Raman crosstalk and its impact on system performance in a multiwavelength bidirectionally pumped Raman fiber amplifier (RFA) is developed for the first time, where we have taken modulation statistics, dispersion-induced pulse walk-off and signal-induced pump depletion into account. Two kinds of statistical Raman crosstalk, from signal-induced forward-pump depletion and from signal-signal Raman interaction, are included in one model. Formulas for normalized Raman crosstalk, Raman crosstalk-induced relative intensity noise spectral density, and its variance and system performance impact in terms of Q penalty are presented for both a single-span system and a dispersion-compensated multispan wavelength-division-multiplexed (WDM) link. Based on these formulas, we numerically investigate the impact of Raman crosstalk on system performance in a three-wavelengths bidirectionally pumped 40 × 40-Gb/s WDM system for various fiber types. In addition, Raman crosstalk in a four-wavelength bidirectionally pumped RFA was experimentally measured. The results agree well with our theory.

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Lightwave Technology, Journal of  (Volume:21 ,  Issue: 10 )