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We report a 75-dB 2.8-μW 100-Hz-10-kHz envelope detector in a 1.5-μm 2.8-V CMOS technology. The envelope detector performs input dc insensitive voltage-to-current converting rectification followed by novel nanopower current-mode peak detection. The use of a subthreshold wide linear range transconductor allows greater than 1.7-Vpp input voltage swings. We show theoretically that the optimal performance of this circuit is technology independent for the given topology and may be improved only by spending more power due to thermal noise rectification limits. A novel circuit topology is used to perform 140-nW peak detection with controllable attack and release time constants. We demonstrate good agreement of experimentally measured results with theory. The envelope detector is useful in low-power bionic implants for the deaf, hearing aids, and speech-recognition front-ends.