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Based on the band-anticrossing model, the effect of the strain-compensated layer and the strain-mediated layer on the band structure, the gain, and the differential gain of GaInNAs-GaAs quantum well lasers have been investigated. Different band-filling mechanisms have been illustrated. Compared to the GaInNAs-GaAs single quantum well with the same wavelength, the introduction of the strain-compensated layer and the strain-mediated layer increases the transparency carrier density. However, these multilayer structures help to suppress the degradation of the differential gain.