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This paper explores challenges facing information system professionals in the management of data and knowledge in the Department of Defense (DOD), particularly in the information systems utilized to support command, control, communications, computers, and intelligence (C4 I). These information systems include operational tactical systems, decision-support systems, modeling and simulation systems, and nontactical business systems, all of which affect the design, operation, interoperation, and application of C4 I systems. Specific topics include issues in integration and interoperability, joint standards, data access, data aggregation, information system component reuse, and legacy systems. Broad technological trends, as well as the use of specific developing technologies are discussed in light of how they may enable the DOD to meet the present and future information-management challenges.