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We have compared experimentally the transmission performance of return-to-zero differential phase-shift keying (RZ-DPSK) with RZ-ON-OFF keying (OOK), nonreturn-to-zero differential phase-shift keying (NRZ-DPSK), and NRZ-OOK for 100×10-Gb/s transmission with a spectral efficiency of 0.22 b/s/Hz over transoceanic distances. The Q degradation of the RZ-DPSK after transmission over 9180 km was 3 dB greater than that of RZ-OOK. The experimental results clearly showed the major cause of degradation for DPSK is not cross-phase modulation but self-phase modulation. The calculated nonlinear phase noise, i.e., the Gordon-Mollenauer effect, agreed with the experimental results. A distributed-Raman-amplifier assisted erbium-doped-fiber-amplified transmission line acted well in reducing the nonlinear phase noise.