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Numerical simulations are used to guide the development of a simple analytical theory for ballistic field-effect transistors. When two-dimensional (2-D) electrostatic effects are small (and when the insulator capacitance is much less than the semiconductor (quantum) capacitance), the model reduces to Natori's theory of the ballistic MOSFET. The model also treats 2-D electrostatics and the quantum capacitance limit where the semiconductor quantum capacitance is much less than the insulator capacitance. This new model provides insights into the performance of MOSFETs near the scaling limit and a unified framework for assessing and comparing a variety of novel transistors.