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Relevance feedback is a powerful technique for image retrieval and has been an active research direction for the past few years. Various ad hoc parameter estimation techniques have been proposed for relevance feedback. In addition, methods that perform optimization on multilevel image content model have been formulated. However, these methods only perform relevance feedback on low-level image features and fail to address the images' semantic content. In this paper, we propose a relevance feedback framework to take advantage of the semantic contents of images in addition to low-level features. By forming a semantic network on top of the keyword association on the images, we are able to accurately deduce and utilize the images' semantic contents for retrieval purposes. We also propose a ranking measure that is suitable for our framework. The accuracy and effectiveness of our method is demonstrated with experimental results on real-world image collections.