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This paper describes a modeling approach to interpret the C-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data from wheat canopies as provided by European Remote Sensing (ERS) satellites, RADARSAT, and the forthcoming Environmental Satellite/Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ENVISAT/ASAR) satellite. At a first step, the results of a first-order modeling were compared to ERS data and scatterometer data over the growing season at two different test sites. The prediction by first-order approach was in disagreement with the data from stem extension stage to soft ripening stage. The first-order approach was found to overestimate the attenuation at vertical (V) polarization, resulting in a predicted backscattering coefficient one order of magnitude lower than that observed by the SAR system. To improve the prediction, a multiple-scattering modeling based on numerical solution of multiple-scattering Foldy-Lax equation was used. The multiple-scattering modeling provides better backscatter estimates at vertical-vertical (VV) polarization for both test sites. Then, the model is used to derive the prevailing interactions mechanisms at horizontal-horizontal (HH) and VV polarizations and 23° and 40° of incidence angle. Finally, the retrieval of crop parameters from C-band SAR data is addressed.