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The Earth Observing One (EO-1) satellite, a part of National Aeronautics and Space Administration's New Millennium Program, was developed to demonstrate new technologies and strategies for improved Earth observations. It was launched from Vandenburg Air Force Base on November 21, 2000. The EO-1 satellite contains three observing instruments supported by a variety of newly developed space technologies. The Advanced Land Imager (ALI) is a prototype for a new generation of Landsat-7 Thematic Mapper. The Hyperion Imaging Spectrometer is the first high spatial resolution imaging spectrometer to orbit the Earth. The Linear Etalon Imaging Spectral Array (LEISA) Atmospheric Corrector (LAC) is a high spectral resolution wedge imaging spectrometer designed to measure atmospheric water vapor content. Instrument performances are validated and carefully monitored through a combination of radiometric calibration approaches: solar, lunar, stellar, Earth (vicarious), and atmospheric observations complemented by onboard calibration lamps and extensive prelaunch calibration. Techniques for spectral calibration of space-based sensors have been tested and validated with Hyperion. ALI and Hyperion instrument performance continue to meet or exceed predictions well beyond the planned one-year program. This paper reviews the EO-1 satellite system and provides details of the instruments and their performance as measured during the first year of operation. Calibration techniques and tradeoffs between alternative approaches are discussed. An overview of the science applications for instrument performance assessment is presented.