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We introduce dispersion-relation-preserving (DRP) algorithms to minimize the numerical dispersion error in large-scale three-dimensional (3D) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations. The dispersion error is first expanded in spherical harmonics in terms of the propagation angle and the leading order terms of the series are made equal to zero. Frequency-dependent FDTD coefficients are then obtained and subsequently expanded in a polynomial (Taylor) series in the frequency variable. An inverse Fourier transformation is used to allow for the incorporation of the new coefficients into the FDTD updates. Butterworth or Chebyshev filters are subsequently employed to fine-tune the FDTD coefficients for a given narrowband or broadband range of frequencies of interest. Numerical results are used to compare the proposed 3D DRP-FDTD schemes against traditional high-order FDTD schemes.