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In this paper, we present CMOS compatible fabrication of monocrystalline silicon micromirror arrays using membrane transfer bonding. To fabricate the micromirrors, a thin monocrystalline silicon device layer is transferred from a standard silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer to a target wafer (e.g., a CMOS wafer) using low-temperature adhesive wafer bonding. In this way, very flat, uniform and low-stress micromirror membranes made of monocrystalline silicon can be directly fabricated on top of CMOS circuits. The mirror fabrication does not contain any bond alignment between the wafers, thus, the mirror dimensions and alignment accuracies are only limited by the photolithographic steps. Micromirror arrays with 4×4 pixels and a pitch size of 16 μm×16 μm have been fabricated. The monocrystalline silicon micromirrors are 0.34 μm thick and have feature sizes as small as 0.6 μm. The distance between the addressing electrodes and the mirror membranes is 0.8 μm. Torsional micromirror arrays are used as spatial light modulators, and have potential applications in projection display systems, pattern generators for maskless lithography systems, optical spectroscopy, and optical communication systems. In principle, the membrane transfer bonding technique can be applied for integration of CMOS circuits with any type of transducer that consists of membranes and that benefits from the use of high temperature annealed or monocrystalline materials. These types of devices include thermal infrared detectors, RF-MEMS devices, tuneable vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL) and other optical transducers.
Date of Publication: Aug. 2003