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In recent years, no-flow underfill technology has drawn more attention due to its potential cost-savings advantages over conventional underfill technology, and as a result several no-flow underfill materials have been developed and reported. However, most of these materials are not suitable for lead-free solder, such as Sn/Ag (m.p. 225°C), Sn/Ag/Cu (m.p. 217°C), applications that usually have higher melting temperatures than the eutectic Sn-Pb solder (m.p. 183°C). Due to the increasing environmental concern, the demand for friendly lead-free solders has become an apparent trend. This paper demonstrates a study on two new formulas of no-flow underfill developed for lead-free solders with a melting point around 220°C. As compared to the G25, a no-flow underfill material developed in our research group, which uses a solid metal chelate curing catalyst to match the reflow profile of eutectic Sn-Pb solder, these novel formulas employ a liquid curing catalyst thus provides ease in preparation of the no-flow underfill materials. In this study, curing kinetics, glass transition temperature (Tg), thermal expansion coefficient (TCE), storage modulus (E') and loss modulus (E'') of these materials were studied with a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), a thermo-mechanical analysis (TMA), and a dynamic-mechanical analysis (DMA), respectively. The pot-life in terms of viscosity of these materials was characterized with a stress rheometer. The adhesive strength of the materials on the surface of silicon chips were studied with a die-shear instrument. The influences of fluxing agents on the materials curing kinetics were studied with a DSC. The materials compatibility to the solder penetration and wetting on copper clad during solder reflow was investigated with both eutectic Sn-Pb and 95.9Sn/3.4Ag/0.7Cu solders on copper laminated FR-4 organic boards.
Components and Packaging Technologies, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:26 , Issue: 2 )
Date of Publication: June 2003