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We derive the decomposition of the anisotropic Gaussian in a one-dimensional (1-D) Gauss filter in the x-direction followed by a 1-D filter in a nonorthogonal direction φ. So also the anisotropic Gaussian can be decomposed by dimension. This appears to be extremely efficient from a computing perspective. An implementation scheme for normal convolution and for recursive filtering is proposed. Also directed derivative filters are demonstrated. For the recursive implementation, filtering an 512 × 512 image is performed within 40 msec on a current state of the art PC, gaining over 3 times in performance for a typical filter, independent of the standard deviations and orientation of the filter. Accuracy of the filters is still reasonable when compared to truncation error or recursive approximation error. The anisotropic Gaussian filtering method allows fast calculation of edge and ridge maps, with high spatial and angular accuracy. For tracking applications, the normal anisotropic convolution scheme is more advantageous, with applications in the detection of dashed lines in engineering drawings. The recursive implementation is more attractive in feature detection applications, for instance in affine invariant edge and ridge detection in computer vision. The proposed computational filtering method enables the practical applicability of orientation scale-space analysis.