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An asymptotic homogenization based process to characterize the effective mechanical properties of tissue scaffolds is presented. The process uses the concept of a composite unit cell to model heterogeneous tissue structures. By using a 3D asymptotic homogenization model, the effective mechanical properties of the designed tissue scaffolds can be determined. The process of the homogenization and the application of the model to scaffolds with different pore geometries and internal architectures are presented.