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The past few years have witnessed the emergence of many real-time networked applications on the Internet. These types of applications require special support from the underlying network such as reliability, timeliness, and guaranteed delivery, as well as different levels of service quality. Unfortunately, this support is not available within the current "best-effort" Internet architecture. In this paper, we review several mechanisms and frameworks proposed to provide network- and application-level quality of service (QoS) in the next-generation Internet. We first discuss the QoS requirements of many of the above-mentioned real-time applications, and then we categorize them according to the required service levels. We also describe the various building blocks often used in QoS approaches. We briefly present asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) and Internet Protocol precedence. Then, we present and compare two service architectures recently adopted by the Internet Engineering Task Force, called integrated services (IntServ) and differentiated services (DiffServ), for providing per-flow and aggregated-flow service guarantees, respectively. We focus on DiffServ because it is a candidate QoS framework to be used in next-generation Internet along with multiprotocol label switching and traffic engineering. We also examine several operational and research issues that need to be resolved before such frameworks can be put in practice.