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Digital halftoning is the process of generating a pattern of pixels with a limited number of colors that, when seen by the human eye, is perceived as a continuous-tone image. Digital halftoning is used to display continuous-tone images in media in which the direct rendition of the tones is impossible. The most common example of such media is ink or toner on paper, and the most common rendering devices for such media are, of course, printers. Halftoning works because the eye acts as a spatial low-pass filter that blurs the rendered pixel pattern, so that it is perceived as a continuous-tone image. Although all halftoning methods rely at least implicitly, on some understanding of the properties of human vision and the display device, the goal of model-based halftoning techniques is to exploit explicit models of the display device and the human visual system (HVS) to maximize the quality of the displayed images. Based on the type of computation involved, halftoning algorithms can be broadly classified into three categories: point algorithms (screening or dithering), neighborhood algorithms (error diffusion), and iterative algorithms [least squares and direct binary search (DBS)]. All of these algorithms can incorporate HVS and printer models. The best halftone reproductions, however, are obtained by iterative techniques that minimize the (squared) error between the output of the cascade of the printer and visual models in response to the halftone image and the output of the visual model in response to the original continuous-tone image.