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Compensation of third-order dispersion in a fiber-optic transmission system using a phase modulator is studied both theoretically and experimentally. A sinusoidal signal is used as modulation function, where the amplitude and phase delay are optimized. The 2-ps input pulses (160-Gb/s compatible) were transmitted through a 626-km fiber link, where the characteristic oscillating tail was measured with a 1.6-ps resolution optical sampling system. When applying the phase modulation, the oscillating tail was significantly suppressed. The pulses were also used in a 160-Gb/s transmission experiment, where the eye diagrams were measured with the sampling system. Numerical simulations and practical experiments showed excellent agreement.