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RicianAccurate performance analysis for linear receivers over frequency- and time-selective asynchronous code-division multiple-access Rician-fading channels is very useful and a general approach to this topic is very desirable. In this paper, by using a decision variable-based moment generating function approach, we provide a unified bit-error probability (BEP) analysis framework for different linear detectors with binary or quaternary differential phase-shift keying and postdetection combining over Rician-fading channels, taking into account the effects of the spreading code correlation, the system and fading-channel parameters, diversity combining, and branch correlation. To reduce the complexity of the exact BEP evaluation, we furthermore provide an approximate multivariate Gaussian assumption (MGA)-based method which entails a low complexity for BEP evaluation. Ideal and approximate linear minimum mean-squared error diversity receivers for correlated Rician-fading channels are proposed. Numerical results show that the phases of the line-of-sight (LOS) components of the desired user significantly affect the receiver performance over correlated multipath Rician channels, and this may be exploited to improve performance. Also, when the LOS components are affected by a significant Doppler shift, automatic frequency control is very useful in improving the receiver performance.