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In this paper, we address the collision resolution (CR) problem from an energy-efficiency point of view and develop a residual-energy-based collision resolution algorithm (CRA) for energy-limited terminals. In this algorithm, which is based on tree-splitting, packets involved in a collision are partitioned into subsets according to the amount of residual battery energy left at the corresponding terminals, and retransmissions are scheduled according to a tree structure. We extend the proposed energy-based CR approach to cases without hard energy constraints but, rather, with energy-efficiency objectives. The algorithm then utilizes the distance from the receiver as the criterion. We evaluate the proposed algorithm via simulation for communication systems ranging from simple single-cell classical collision channel models to general multihop wireless ad-hoc networks.