By Topic

Signal characteristics of individual crystals in high resolution BGO detector designs using PMT-quadrant sharing

Sign In

Cookies must be enabled to login.After enabling cookies , please use refresh or reload or ctrl+f5 on the browser for the login options.

Formats Non-Member Member
$31 $13
Learn how you can qualify for the best price for this item!
Become an IEEE Member or Subscribe to
IEEE Xplore for exclusive pricing!
close button

puzzle piece

IEEE membership options for an individual and IEEE Xplore subscriptions for an organization offer the most affordable access to essential journal articles, conference papers, standards, eBooks, and eLearning courses.

Learn more about:

IEEE membership

IEEE Xplore subscriptions

9 Author(s)
Uribe, J. ; M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Texas Univ., Houston, TX, USA ; Hongdi Li ; Tao Xing ; Yaqiang Liu
more authors

The PMT-quadrant sharing (PQS) detector design allows very high resolution detectors to be built with 70% fewer PMTs and lower cost. A common concern for the design is that there is a big gap (photo-insensitive area) between four circular PMTs and the photoelectron signal (pulse height) may be much lower for the central crystals. The concern increases with the use of smaller PMTs for high-resolution designs because small PMTs have relatively thicker walls and relatively larger tolerance spaces between them. The authors measured the pulse heights and energy resolution for each crystal in three different types of PQS blocks for 19 mm PMT. For a square 7 × 7 block detector (2.66 mm × 2.66 mm × 18 mm BGO needles), the maximum photopeak signals occurred at the corner crystal of the block. The signals for the worst central five crystals (sitting on space with no PMT connection) had pulse heights 0.87 as high as that of the corner crystals. The 12 crystals (outside the central five) with coupling only to the glass wall but not to the photocathode had a relative pulse height of 0.92. The eight crystals with partial exposure to photocathodes had a 0.94 relative pulse height. The energy resolution for individual crystals was 22% - 30% with an average of 26%. Asymmetric photopeaks, especially for the corner crystals, were observed, and these were found to be the result of the depth-of-interaction effect. In the latest PQS design, extended blocks with asymmetric light distributions were used on the four edges and four corners of a large detector module so that the previously unused (wasted) half-row of peripheral PMT could be covered by crystals. An asymmetric block, single-extended (7 × 8 crystals) was also tested. The pulse-height ratio between the worst and best group of crystals in the single-extended block was 0.72 and that of the double-extended block was also 0.72. In a more demanding, higher spatial resolution 8 × 8 array (2.3 mm × 2.3 mm × 10 mm BGO) for mouse PET with shallower crystals, the pulse-height ratio was 0.73 with an average energy resolution of 20%. This study demonstrated that pulse height uniformity for the PQS design using circular PMT was excellent, better than the typical 3/1 - pulse-height ratio in conventional block detectors.

Published in:

Nuclear Science, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:50 ,  Issue: 3 )