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Chromosome banding patterns are very important features for karyotyping, based on which cytogenetic diagnosis procedures are conducted. Due to cell culture, staining, and imaging conditions, image enhancement is a desirable preprocessing step before performing chromosome classification. In this paper, we apply a family of differential wavelet transforms (Wang and Lee, 1998), (Wang, 1999) for this purpose. The proposed differential filters facilitate the extraction of multiscale geometric features of chromosome images. Moreover, desirable fast computation can be realized. We study the behavior of both banding edge pattern and noise in the wavelet transform domain. Based on the fact that image geometrical features like edges are correlated across different scales in the wavelet representation, a multiscale point-wise product (MPP) is used to characterize the correlation of the image features in the scale-space. A novel algorithm is proposed for the enhancement of banding patterns in a chromosome image. In order to compare objectively the performance of the proposed algorithm against several existing image-enhancement techniques, a quantitative criteria, the contrast improvement ratio (CIR), has been adopted to evaluate the enhancement results. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method consistently outperforms existing techniques in terms of the CIR measure, as well as in visual effect. The effect of enhancement on cytogenetic diagnosis is further investigated by classification tests conducted prior to and following the chromosome image enhancement. In comparison with conventional techniques, the proposed method leads to better classification results, thereby benefiting the subsequent cytogenetic diagnosis.