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We develop a numerical model for the transmission performance of bidirectional wavelength-division-multiplexed (WDM) transmissions. Using the numerical model, wavelength-interleaved 10-Gb/s bidirectional WDM systems are analyzed by considering the impairment of the system performance due to Rayleigh backscattering (RB). We also calculate the power penalty and the crosstalk due to RB from the analytical model, and then compare to the results obtained from the numerical model. The analytical model can provide similar results obtained from the numerical model. Both the numerical and analytical models suggest that the total isolation of filters must be more than 19.5 dB for 320-km transmission while keeping the power penalty of less than 2 dB.