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Microwave heating significantly speeds up the curing process of polymer and polymer-based composites. The present theoretical work studies the microwave transmission through the electrically conductive adhesive (ECA), heat generation and transfer inside the ECA and subsequently the microwave heating rate of the ECA. By studying the temporal transmission property of the microwaves in the ECA, we have calculated quantitatively the electromagnetic field distribution around a metal filler. It has been shown that the penetration depth of the skin effect in the metal filler is significantly smaller than the one of a bulk metal material. The heat generation (microwave power absorption) is negligible in the metal filler due to its large electric conductivity. Furthermore, due to the high thermal conductivity, the thermal equilibrium between the metal filler and the surrounding adhesive is reached within a nano second (10-9 s). The temperature of the whole ECA system becomes uniform within a time interval of 10-3 s. When the temperature of the system is relatively low, the heating rate of the system is linearly proportional to the external microwave input power and the heating time. It gradually saturates when the temperature of the ECA is so high that the heat radiation from the ECA becomes significant. Numerical results of our theoretical model agree well with experimental data, thus providing a solid platform for designing the microwave curing process of the ECA.