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Estimation of the instantaneous frequency (IF) in a high noise environment, by using the Wigner distribution (WD) and the Viterbi algorithm, is considered. The proposed algorithm combines nonparametric IF estimation based on the WD maxima with minimization of the IF variations between consecutive points. Algorithm realization is performed recursively using the (modified) Viterbi algorithm. Performances are compared with IF estimation based on the WD maxima.