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Radiation characteristics and performance of millimeter-wave horn-fed Gaussian beam antennas

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5 Author(s)
Sauleau, R. ; Inst. d''Electronique et de Telecommun. de Rennes, Univ. de Rennes I, France ; Coquet, P. ; Thouroude, D. ; Daniel, Jean-Pierre
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Radiation characteristics and performance of Gaussian beam antennas (GBAs) are studied theoretically and experimentally in the 60 GHz band. A GBA consists of a plano-convex half-wavelength Fabry-Perot (FP) resonator excited by a guided source with a metal flange. Two reflecting metal mesh mirrors are formed on both faces of the cavity. After a review of the principles and quasi-optical performance of plano-convex FP resonators illuminated by a plane wave, a new formulation is proposed to compute the radiation patterns of GBAs: the usual expression of the waist radius inside open resonators is modified to account for the horn aperture and for the grid parameters of the plane mirror. Standard closed-form relations of vector Gaussian beams are then used to compute the radiated copolar components. In particular, it is shown that the plane mirror is not an equiphase surface, due to the metal flange of the horn. The true phase distribution is approximated by a spherical wavefront. As a result, the directivity of the antenna becomes lower than its quasi-optical value. Experimental data obtained at 60 GHz with several pyramidal horns and various cavities agree very well with the theory. Sidelobes are lower than -25 dB, and the cross-polarization level is the same as that of the primary radiator. Universal curves showing the variations of resonant frequency, -3 dB bandwidth, gain, and radiation efficiency as a function of mirror reflectivity are very useful for the design of GBAs.

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Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:51 ,  Issue: 3 )