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The ground plane affects the characteristics of a planar inverted-F antenna (PIFA) significantly. Using the idea of the high-impedance surface to construct the ground plane, a new type of compact PIFA with a photonic bandgap type (PBG-type) ground plane is proposed. Both the traditional PIFA and the proposed antenna are analyzed using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method in detail. It is found that the two antennas have similar directivity pattern characteristics, but the size of the latter can be reduced obviously. The results also show that the bandwidth of a traditional PIFA is not greatly affected by the thickness of the metallic ground plane and that the shapes of the directivity patterns are not greatly affected by the ground plane under the small size condition. The operating-frequency band of the proposed antenna can be adjusted by changing the dielectric substrate thickness of the ground plane. They are suitable for mobile communication applications.