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Nanocapsules, fuzzy assemblies of polyelectrolyte, represent a comparatively new class of colloids with controlled nanostructure and tunable properties. Due to the fact that the core as well as the dissolution influences the wall texture and the properties of the hollow capsules, the use of carbonate crystals as template is most convenient. Yeast cells constitute as a core candidate as well. They are a good system for testing the protective ability of shells and the permeability of the walls with respect to the needs of biological systems, namely, feeding and stability against attacks. The main features of the nanocapsules have been studied by two-photon, confocal, and atomic force microscopy. Nanocapsules are of biomedical interest because they can be used, for example, for the controlled release and targeting of drugs as well as for the protection of enzymes, proteins, and foreign cells.