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For the code division multiple access (CDMA) downlink channel, the chip-level equalization has been considered in this paper. There is no interference after despreading if all spreading codes are orthogonal, as in IS-95. However, it cannot be true for a frequency-selective fading channel. In this case, the chip-level equalization can be applied to restore the orthogonality. We investigate the chip-level equalization using finite impulse response (FIR) equalizers for the mobile station with multiple receive antennas. A blind approach and the minimum mean square error (MMSE) approach with code-multiplexed pilot are considered. A generalized MMSE equalization, which combines the MMSE and blind approaches together, is also investigated. It is shown that the generalized MMSE equalizer can effectively increase the number of samples to track the variation of channel and thereby performs better when the coherence time is small. In addition, we derive closed-form solutions of the blind, MMSE, and generalized MMSE equalizers for given channels.
Date of Publication: May 2003