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High data rates give rise to frequency-selective propagation, whereas carrier frequency-offsets and mobility-induced Doppler shifts introduce time-selectivity in wireless links. To mitigate the resulting time- and frequency-selective (or doubly selective) channels, optimal training sequences have been designed only for special cases: pilot symbol assisted modulation (PSAM) for time-selective channels and pilot tone-assisted orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) for frequency-selective channels. Relying on a basis expansion channel model, we design low-complexity optimal PSAM for block transmissions over doubly selective channels. The optimality in designing our PSAM parameters consists of maximizing a tight lower bound on the average channel capacity that is shown to be equivalent to the minimization of the minimum mean-square channel estimation error. Numerical results corroborate our theoretical designs.