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In this note, we present a new approach to the problem of designing a digital proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller for a given but arbitrary linear time invariant plant. By using the Tchebyshev representation of a discrete-time transfer function and some new results on root counting with respect to the unit circle, we show how the digital PID stabilizing gains can be determined by solving sets of linear inequalities in two unknowns for a fixed value of the third parameter. By sweeping or gridding over this parameter, the entire set of stabilizing gains can be recovered. The precise admissible range of this parameter can be predetermined. This solution is attractive because it answers the question of whether there exists a stabilizing solution or not and in case stabilization is possible the entire set of gains is determined constructively. Using this characterization of the stabilizing set we present solutions to two design problems: 1) maximally deadbeat design, where we determine for the given plant, the smallest circle within the unit circle wherein the closed loop system characteristic roots may be placed by PID control and 2) maximal delay tolerance, where we determine, for the given plant the maximal-loop delay that can be tolerated under PID control. In each case, the set of controllers attaining the specifications is calculated. Illustrative examples are included.