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A fit-parameter-free model is used to calculate optical and electronic material properties of GaInNAs semiconductor lasers. Incoherent processes which lead to dephasing of optical polarisations and carrier thermalisation are calculated microscopically by solving generalised quantum-Boltzmann equations for electron-electron and electron-phonon scattering. The theory is shown to give excellent quantitative agreement with experimental results. Shortcomings of simpler approaches are demonstrated. Carrier capture times in GaInNAs systems of varying well depth and width are calculated and the results are compared to those in InGaPAs- and AlInGaAs-based structures.