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Two electrical models of a lead-acid battery, a short-term discharge model and a long-term integrated model, were used to investigate the system performance of a battery-supported dynamic voltage restorer (DVR). The short-term model provides a simple but effective description when the DVR compensates voltage sags over a short period. The integrated model can predict accurately the terminal voltage, state of charge, battery capacity and gassing current. It gives a good description of the battery response during both discharge and charge. Parameters of both models can be determined easily from measured battery output voltages obtained from load-step tests. Both models were successfully implemented in EMTDC/PSCAD and interfaced with the digital model of a 10 kVA DVR physical prototype. They gave a very close agreement between extensive experimental data and simulation results. Application issues such as current harmonics and microcycles during charge/discharge are discussed with respect to their impact on loss of capacity and reduced lifetime of the lead-acid battery.
Generation, Transmission and Distribution, IEE Proceedings- (Volume:150 , Issue: 2 )
Date of Publication: March 2003