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This practically oriented paper presents the fundamentals for analysis, optimization, and design of negative resistance oscillators (NRO) stabilized with surface transverse wave (STW)-based single-port resonators (SPR). Data on a variety of high-Q, low-loss SPR devices in the 900- to 2000-MHz range, suitable for NRO applications, are presented, and a simple method for SPR parameter extraction through Pi-circuit measurements is outlined. Negative resistance analysis, based on S-parameter data of the active device, is performed on a tuned-base, grounded collector transistor NRO, known for its good stability and tuning at microwave frequencies. By adding a SPR in the emitter network, the static transducer capacitance is absorbed by the circuit and is used to generate negative resistance only over the narrow bandwidth of the acoustic device, eliminating the risk of spurious oscillations. The analysis allows exact prediction of the oscillation frequency, tuning range, loaded Q, and excess gain. Simulation and experimental data on a 915-MHz fixed-frequency NRO and a wide tuning range, voltage-controlled STW oscillator, built and tested experimentally, are presented. Practical design aspects including the choice of transistor, negative feedback circuits, load coupling, and operation at the highest phase slope for minimum phase noise are discussed.