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The antilock braking system (ABS) is designed to optimize braking effectiveness and maintain steerability; however, the ABS performance will be degraded in the case of severe road conditions. In this study, a self-learning fuzzy sliding-mode control (SLFSMC) design method is proposed for ABS. The SLFSMC ABS will modulate the brake torque for optimum braking. The SLFSMC system is comprised of a fuzzy controller and a robust controller. The fuzzy controller is designed to mimic an ideal controller and the robust controller is designed to compensate for the approximation error between the ideal controller and the fuzzy controller. The tuning algorithms of the controller are derived in the Lyapunov sense; thus, the stability of the system can be guaranteed. Also, the derivation of the proposed SLFSMC ABS does not need to use a vehicle-braking model. Simulations are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed SLFSMC ABS in adapting to changes for various road conditions.