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Human exposure assessment in the near field of GSM base-station antennas using a hybrid finite element/method of moments technique

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4 Author(s)
F. J. C. Meyer ; EM Software & Syst. SA, Stellenbosch, South Africa ; D. B. Davidson ; U. Jakobus ; M. A. Stuchly

A hybrid finite-element method (FEM)/method of moments (MoM) technique is employed for specific absorption rate (SAR) calculations in a human phantom in the near field of a typical group special mobile (GSM) base-station antenna. The MoM is used to model the metallic surfaces and wires of the base-station antenna, and the FEM is used to model the heterogeneous human phantom. The advantages of each of these frequency domain techniques are, thus, exploited, leading to a highly efficient and robust numerical method for addressing this type of bioelectromagnetic problem. The basic mathematical formulation of the hybrid technique is presented. This is followed by a discussion of important implementation details-in particular, the linear algebra routines for sparse, complex FEM matrices combined with dense MoM matrices. The implementation is validated by comparing results to MoM (surface equivalence principle implementation) and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) solutions of human exposure problems. A comparison of the computational efficiency of the different techniques is presented. The FEM/MoM implementation is then used for whole-body and critical-organ SAR calculations in a phantom at different positions in the near field of a base-station antenna. This problem cannot, in general, be solved using the MoM or FDTD due to computational limitations. This paper shows that the specific hybrid FEM/MoM implementation is an efficient numerical tool for accurate assessment of human exposure in the near field of base-station antennas.

Published in:

IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering  (Volume:50 ,  Issue: 2 )