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When working with multilook fully polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data, an appropriate way of representing the backscattered signal consists of the so-called covariance matrix. For each pixel, this is a 3×3 Hermitian positive definite matrix that follows a complex Wishart distribution. Based on this distribution, a test statistic for equality of two such matrices and an associated asymptotic probability for obtaining a smaller value of the test statistic are derived and applied successfully to change detection in polarimetric SAR data. In a case study, EMISAR L-band data from April 17, 1998 and May 20, 1998 covering agricultural fields near Foulum, Denmark are used. Multilook full covariance matrix data, azimuthal symmetric data, covariance matrix diagonal-only data, and horizontal-horizontal (HH), vertical-vertical (VV), or horizontal-vertical (HV) data alone can be used. If applied to HH, VV, or HV data alone, the derived test statistic reduces to the well-known gamma likelihood-ratio test statistic. The derived test statistic and the associated significance value can be applied as a line or edge detector in fully polarimetric SAR data also.