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Because of the hostile ocean transmission conditions, underwater acoustic communication is one of the most difficulty communication technologies. Frequency-hopping underwater acoustic communication systems are drawing more and more attention for their good performance under serious noise and multipath interference conditions. Synchronization signal processing is a key factor of FH underwater acoustic communication systems. In the FH shallow underwater acoustic data communication system, employing an adaptive line-spectrum enhancing (ALE) method, frequency diversity, pulse width judgment and frame synchronization signal correlation processing to detect the synchronization signal under the condition of low SNR and heavy amplitude fluctuation, satisfactory ocean experimental results are obtained.