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Temperature increase in the human head due to a dipole antenna at microwave frequencies

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3 Author(s)
Hirata, A. ; Dept. of Commun. Eng., Osaka Univ., Japan ; Morita, M. ; Shiozawa, T.

The temperature increases in a human head due to electromagnetic (EM) wave exposure from a dipole antenna are investigated in the frequency range of 900 MHz to 2.45 GHz. The maximum temperature increases in the head and brain are compared with the values of 10°C and 3.5°C (found in literature pertaining to microwave-induced physiological damage). In particular, the estimation scheme for maximum temperature increases of the head and brain tissues is discussed in terms of a peak average specific absorption rate (SAR) as prescribed in safety standards. The rationale for this attempt is that maximum temperature increases and peak average SARs have not been well correlated yet. For this purpose, the SAR in the head model is initially calculated by the finite-difference time-domain method. The temperature increase in the model is then calculated by substituting the SAR into the bioheat equation. Numerical results demonstrate that the temperature increase distribution in the head is largely dependent on the frequency of EM waves. This is mainly because of the frequency dependency of the SAR distribution. Similarly, maximum temperature increases in the head and brain are significantly affected by the frequency and polarization of the EM wave. The maximum temperature increases in the head (excluding auricles) and brain are determined through linear extrapolation of the peak average SAR in these regions. According to this scheme, it is found that the peak SAR averaged over 1 g of tissue in the head should be approximately 65 W/kg to achieve the maximum temperature increase of 10°C induced in the head excluding auricles. This corresponds to a factor of about 40 compared to the FCC standard. On the other hand, the peak SAR for 10 g of tissue should be around 40 W/kg, which implies a factor of about 20 compared to the ICNIRP standard.

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Electromagnetic Compatibility, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:45 ,  Issue: 1 )