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In this paper, we review the fundamental advantages and drawbacks of 40-Gb/s systems from a fiber manufacturer's perspective. Based on modeling, experimental results, and fundamental understanding, we correlate the fiber design parameters with the expected performance of long-haul systems operating at 40 Gb/s. Nonlinear penalties, dispersion tolerances, modulation formats, polarization-mode dispersion, and Raman amplification are covered. We also present the fiber features required for both metro and submarine networks at this specific data rate.