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Characterization of lead-free solders and under bump metallurgies for flip-chip package

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10 Author(s)
Jong-Kai Lin ; Semicond. Products Sector, Motorola Inc., Tempe, AZ, USA ; De Silva, A. ; Frear, D. ; Guo, Y.
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A variety of Pb-free solders and under bump metallurgies (UBMs) was investigated for flip chip packaging applications. The result shows that the Sn-0.7Cu eutectic alloy has the best fatigue life and it possess the most desirable failure mechanism in both thermal and isothermal mechanical tests regardless of UBM type. Although the electroless Ni-P UBM has a much slower reaction rate with solders than the Cu UBM, room temperature mechanical fatigue is worse than on the Cu UBM when coupled with either Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu or Sn-3.5Ag solder. The Sn-37Pb solder consumes less Cu UBM than all other Pb-free solders during reflow. However, Sn-37Pb consumes more Cu after solid state annealing. Studies on aging, tensile, and shear mechanical properties show that the Sn-0.7Cu alloy is the most favorable Pb-free solder for flip chip applications. When coupled with underfill encapsulation in a direct chip attach (DCA) test device, the Sn-0.7Cu bump with Cu UBM exhibits a characteristic life or 5322 cycles under -55°C/+150°C air-to-air thermal cycling condition.

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Electronics Packaging Manufacturing, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:25 ,  Issue: 4 )