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For pt.I see ibid., vol.39, no.11, p.2490-8 (2001). This is the second paper of the series on atmospheric correction of Enhanced Thematic Mapper-Plus (ETM+) land surface imagery. In the first paper, a new algorithm that corrects heterogeneous aerosol scattering and surface adjacency effects was presented. In this study, our objectives are to (1) evaluate the accuracy of this new atmospheric correction algorithm using ground radiometric measurements, (2) apply this algorithm to correct Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and SeaWiFS imagery, and (3) demonstrate how much atmospheric correction of ETM+ imagery can improve land cover classification, change detection, and broadband albedo calculations. Validation results indicate that this new algorithm can retrieve surface reflectance from ETM+ imagery accurately. All experimental cases demonstrate that this algorithm can be used for correcting both MODIS and SeaWiFS imagery. Although more tests and validation exercises are needed, it has been proven promising to correct different multispectral imagery operationally. We have also demonstrated that atmospheric correction does matter.